EDCI 6219 Developing international mindedness


WELCOME

Welcome to "Developing International Mindedness." This Developing International Mindedness course has four modules:

  • MODULE 1: A Historical Introduction
  • MODULE 2: International Mindedness – The Impact of School Decisions
  • MODULE 3: The Skills of International Mindedness
  • MODULE 4: International-Mindedness – What Else is Involved?

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PREPARATION

There is not much preparation for this course. In some cases, information to be printed require Adobe Acrobat software or software that opens PDFs. There are no textbooks, but the books in the bibliography are suggested to have a deeper understanding of the subjects discussed. Most information for this course is found in the narratives, links and provided on this webpage.

COURSE STRUCTURE

This is an independent study program which means your individual starting date and due date are based on your date of registration. Your instructor will advise you of this due date.

This is an interactive online course. Although you will be able to complete some of it just by sitting in front of your screen working through the online material, we will regularly ask you to reflect on what you have learned, and put ideas into practice.

  • Activities - exercises or reflections for you to carry out in front of your computer screen. Unlike a Task, there is no specific end product, and you'll always be able to complete them on your own.
  • Tasks - similar to Activities, but requiring you to put your learning into practice in a specific situation in school.
  • Forms - use to collect the information learned.
  • Resources -

    a) RESOURCE FORMS: Has PDF forms to help you answer questions in the Student Books

    b) RESOURCE FURTHER READING: Includes clarifications about the module.

    c) REFERENCE LINKS: Has links to websites referred to in the module.

    d) DEFINITIONS: Has definitions of terms used in the module.

    e) BIBLIOGRAPHY: The bibliography is located at the bottom of this page that includes books you may check out at your local library.

  • Student Book- for you to record your reflections and send to your instructor.

At any time you may email your instructor with questions or problems you may be having with the material or the web site.

How do I get the Student Book to my instructor?

You will need to email it to your instructor. Download and save the document as described below and then you can enter your own text into the Student Book word document. Your instructor will expect a version of your Student Book as you complete each module. These can be saved by you in your files as well as being sent to your course instructor via email as an email attachment.

How do I save and name the Student Book?

You cannot type your answers on this web site. You must download your Student Book template which is a word document, by clicking on the download link below.

For your Student Book, please use a text document or a Microsoft Word document and type your text there. Title the document like this:

  • NAME OF CLASS
  • NAME OF TEACHER
  • YOUR NAME
  • DATE
  • MODULE1

[NAMEOFCLASS_TEACHERSNAME_YOURNAME_MODULENUMBER.doc ]

like this

6208_DRCLARK_JOHNDOE_MODULE1.doc

Save the Student Book on your computer and complete the assignments on the document and then email it to your teacher.

INDEX

STUDENTBOOK Click here to download all student books

RESOURCES

BIBLIOGRAPHY

REFERENCE LINKS

Module 1: Historical introduction

MODULE 1A: Introduction to MODULE 1

MODULE 1B: Intended learning outcomes for MODULE 1

MODULE 1C: What do we mean by 'international schools'?

MODULE 1D: Activity 1: The nature of international schools

MODULE 1E: Task 1: Review of your own school

MODULE 1F: Activity 2: The origins of international mindedness

MODULE 1G: Activity 3: International education and world issues

MODULE 1H: Task 2: Your definition of international mindedness

MODULE 1I: What have you learned? Evaluation of your learning from MODULE 1

MODULE 1J: Congratulations

Module 2: International mindedness – the impact of school decisions


MODULE 2A: Introduction to Module 2

MODULE 2B: Intended learning outcomes for Module 2

MODULE 2C: Task 3: Your school's mission statement: Your school's mission statement

MODULE 2D: Activity 4: Reviewing your existing structures, practices and culture

MODULE 2E: Task 4: Selecting suitable material (1)

MODULE 2F: Selecting suitable material (2)

MODULE 2G. Selecting suitable material (3)

MODULE 2H. Selecting suitable material (4)

MODULE 2I. Activity 5: International mindedness in every subject?

MODULE 2J: Activity 6: Transmitting values (1)

MODULE 2K: Activity 7: Transmitting values (2)

MODULE 2L: Task 5: Checking your values

MODULE 2M: Further reading – a personal perspective

MODULE 2N: Activity 8: What makes a school internationally-minded?

MODULE2O: What have you learned? Evaluation of your learning from Module 2

MODULE 2P: Congratulations


Module 3: The skills of international mindedness

MODULE 3A: Introduction to MODULE 3

MODULE 3B: Intended learning outcomes for MODULE 3

MODULE 3C: International mindedness in the formal curriculum

MODULE 3D: Activity 9: Peace Studies (1)

MODULE 3E: Activity 9: Peace Studies (2)

MODULE 3F:Activity 10: Reflection on Peace Studies

MODULE 3G: Values and the Affective Domain

MODULE 3H: Task 6: Planning and evaluating a lesson

MODULE 3I: Thinking at a higher level

MODULE 3J: Activity 11: Some skills to think about

MODULE 3K: Activity 12: 'Service' and international mindedness

MODULE 3L: Assessment – some background

MODULE 3M: Activity 13: Assessment

MODULE 3N: International mindedness in future life

MODULE 3O: What have you learned? Evaluation of your learning from MODULE 3

MODULE 3P: Congratulations


MODULE 4 Module 4: International-mindedness – what else is involved?

MODULE 4A: Intended learning outcomes for Module 4

MODULE 4B: Activity 14: The influence of language (1)

MODULE 4C: Activity 14: The influence of language (2)

MODULE 4D: Activity 15: Cultural identity – the role of parents

MODULE 4E: Task 7: Discussion with a colleague

MODULE 4F: Activity 16: Western values

MODULE 4G: Franchised values

MODULE 4H: Activity 17: Absolutes or Relatives?

MODULE 4I: What have you learned? Evaluation of your learning from MODULE 4

MODULE 4J: Congratulations

MODULE 1: Historical introduction

MODULE 1A- Introduction to MODULE 1

In this module we'll discuss the rationale for the foundation of international schools, and you'll research the foundation of your own school and see how this relates to the philosophies and values discussed. Then you'll be asked to come up with your own definition of "international mindedness".

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MODULE 1b- Intended learning outcomes for MODULE 1

By the end of this module you should:

  • understand the origins of international schools
  • be aware of some of the claims made for "international education"
  • have a working definition of "international mindedness"
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MODULE 1C- Task 3: Your school's mission statement

International schools originally came about as a very practical solution to a specific need. A rapidly expanding and mobile work force of diplomats, civil servants, government and international business employees needed schools for their children. A market was created and international schools spread across the world.
This market didn't just spawn schools though – it was the seedbed for the growth of what is now known as "international education".

But what exactly are international schools? Read Resource 1, which contains some thoughts about the difficulty of defining an international school.

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MODULE 1D- Activity 4: Reviewing your existing structures, practices and culture

The last Resource offered descriptions of some different types of international schools. What did you make of these descriptions, in particular the distinction between schools that are:

  • utilitarian
  • pragmatic
  • ideologically-focused?

Write your thoughts in your Student book (1).

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MODULE 1E- Task 4: Selecting suitable material (1)

Do a little research about the foundation of your own school and how it developed. In particular, try and establish how far it was driven by utilitarian, pragmatic, or ideological factors. (Remember you can find explanations of these terms in Resource 1.)
You might need to talk to long-standing members of staff. See whether the school has an archive. If photographs are displayed, perhaps near the head's office, ask about them. You might find information in old yearbooks or similar publications. Perhaps the guidance office or admission staff have information that they share with future parents or universities.

Write a brief summary of your findings in your Student book (2).

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MODULE 1F-Activity 2: The origins of international mindedness

For most of us, the concept of "international mindedness" is a recent entry in our vocabulary. But the idea isn't new.

For example, as early as 1929, George H Mead, an American academic, wrote an article called "National-Mindedness and International-Mindedness" in the International Journal of Ethics. With the 1914-1918 war fresh in the memory, this article was a plea for nationalism to be replaced by internationalism.

More recently, there was the 1951 Conference of Internationally-Minded Schools. Read Resource 2, which is an extract from an article by Ian Hill about this conference.

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MODULE 1G- Activity 3: International education and world issues

Read the extract in Resource 3, which looks further into what is meant by 'international education'.
This extract reveals high hopes for the influence of international education. Some people (like George Walker) believe by applying certain values in education, we can get a real change that improves the human condition. This might be in the form of peace, and in economic terms a more equal distribution of wealth. We'll come back to the idea of 'values' later in the course.

In your Student book (3), record your reflections on the extent to which international education can make a real difference to world issues

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MODULE 1H- Task 2: Your definition of international mindedness

Bearing in mind what we've looked at so far in this module, have a go at defining "international mindedness". Talk to colleagues in school and ask them for their definition of the concept. Then write a definition in your Student book (4). Print your response as you'll return to this definition later in the course.

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MODULE 1I-What have you learned? Evaluation of your learning from MODULE 1

Now that you've completed the Tasks and Activities in MODULE 1, have another look at the intended learning outcomes for this module.
By the end of this module you should:

  • understand the origins of international schools
  • be aware of some of the claims made for "international education"
  • have a working definition of "international mindedness"

In your Student book (5) note the extent to which you feel you have achieved these learning outcomes. Note any future action you'll have to take than e-mail your comments to your instructor.

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MODULE 1J-Congratulations


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MODULE 2: International mindedness – the impact of school decisions


MODULE 2A - Introduction to Module 2

In this module, you'll look critically at the claims made by international curricula and the curricula of your own school. You'll look at how you as a teacher might pass on the value of international mindedness to your students. You'll reflect on how the content, language and origin of teaching materials might impact on the development of international mindedness in the student.
This will lay a foundation for MODULE 3, which will focus on the students themselves.

MODULE 2B- Intended learning outcomes for Module 2

By the end of this module, you should:

  • have critically evaluated your own school's claims about international mindedness
  • understand the impact the values in your school have on what happens in your classroom
  • understand how the classroom practices of your school can influence the international mindedness of the students

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MODULE 2C- Task 3: Your school's mission statement

Schools often have mission statements, statements of philosophy and a list of school-wide objectives. The purpose of these documents is usually to declare the core business of the school. Find your school's mission statement, and any other similar documents. Read them, and either by yourself or working in a group, identify any statements or directives that point toward the development of international mindedness in teachers and other staff members.

Are you satisfied that the concept of international mindedness is addressed? If not, how would you change them to make international mindedness more explicit?

Note your ideas in your Student book (6).

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MODULE 2D- Activity 4: Reviewing your existing structures, practices and culture

Think about the existing structures, practices and culture in your school. Can you identify any ways the school is organized that aim to develop international mindedness? Read Resource 4 for some suggestions of areas to look.

Then, in your Student book (7), write up your thoughts.

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MODULE 2E- Task 4: Selecting suitable material (section 1)

When you select material to use in class, you have to decide what's appropriate and what produces a balance. But the decision doesn't always rest with you.
Some schools or departments have strict rules about materials, leaving you little freedom. As mentioned in Resource 5, your school might have a curriculum committee which oversees those decisions.

Look at Resource 5 to see an extreme example of such external control of classroom materials.

Answer questions 1 and 2 in your Student book (8), noting your thoughts about the reaction that you've just read about. How much choice should an individual teacher have in choosing material and objectives for a lesson or module of work?

(Note: just answer questions 1 and 2 in Student book (8) for now. You'll return to the other questions over the next few pages of the course.)

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MODULE 2F- Selecting suitable material (section 2)

All too often, the material you provide can reflect the nationalistic bias of the language of instruction in the school. If yours is an English-medium school, most of your sources will probably be from the USA or UK, or perhaps from Canada, Australia and New Zealand.
Is this the case with your school? Go back to your Student book (8), and answer question 3, noting the extent to which the language of instruction influences the selection of material in your school.

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MODULE 2G- Selecting suitable material (section 3)

Talk with a language teacher in your school – the French teacher or the Spanish teacher for example. Try to gauge how much they're influenced by national materials from their respective language bases.
For example, in the case of the French teacher, is all the material from France or does some come from Quebec? In the case of Spanish, how much South American material is used?

(If you're a language teacher yourself you might want to talk to a social studies teacher. Whose history is taught? Or ask a math or science teacher about the source of their material.)

Record your findings in question 4 of your Student book (8).

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MODULE 2H- Selecting suitable material (section 4)

Do you think the material you use creates a monoculture for your students? And does this, in turn, hinder the development of their international mindedness? Look at Resource 6 for an illustration of how this might work.

Obviously, it's not necessary for all lessons to have objectives relating to international mindedness, but the example does show how a monoculture can be unknowingly developed.

Finally for this Task, answer question 5 in your Student book (8).

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MODULE 2I- Activity 5: International mindedness in every subject?

Some teachers believe that the idea of international mindedness need only be addressed by particular subject teachers. But this isn't the case. With a bit of imagination, you can create an internationally-minded focus in most lessons. To illustrate this point, look at Resource 7. It's an example of how even a math lesson about circles could make use of 'internationally-minded' material.

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MODULE 2J- Activity 6: Transmitting values (1)

We saw earlier how materials that you use can create particular mindsets. It's also important to realize that we transmit values – even when we don't intend to. In fact there's evidence to suggest that if we try not to share a value, we may transmit it more strongly.

Read Resource 8, which is an example from outside the field of education of how values can be transmitted.

We can see how difficult it would be to train teachers to pass on values. Even if teachers learn new approaches and methodologies, there's no guarantee that their values will change.

To complicate this further, evidence tells us that school leaders have a significant impact on the value system of the school by their treatment of all people in the school community. They may not be aware of it, but their personal values can shape the values of a school.

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MODULE 2K-Activity 7: Transmitting values (2)

Read Resource 9, in which George Walker expresses concern about values that he holds being different from others. He doesn't judge whose are better, but does suggest that different sets of values result in different outcomes. When teaching, some of our values are strikingly obvious, others we keep hidden. It's important to realize that both the obvious and hidden values impact on the students.

In your Student book (9), try to summarize the values to which you aspire.

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MODULE 2L- Task 5: Checking your values

Look critically at two or three recent lesson plans you've used in your teaching and respond to the two questions below.
(You may wish to compare notes with a colleague for this Task).

In the lesson plans in question, are you applying the values you consider important for your own teaching? (You noted some of these values in your Student book (9).
What are the constraints which make teaching such values difficult? Are they related to the issue of developing a monoculture?
Note your responses to these questions in your Student book (10).

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MODULE 2M- Further reading – a personal perspective

Click on the link below to read a personal account of the effect of international mindedness on teachers. It's taken from the website of the University of Bath's Centre for the study of Education in an International Context (CEIC). Read it here

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MODULE 2N- Activity 8: What makes a school internationally-minded?

In Module 1, we asked the question: what makes an international school 'internationally-minded'? To finish this module, we'll look at this in more detail.

All the extracts below are taken from an article by Jeff Thompson and James Cambridge, called Internationalism, international-mindedness, multiculturalism and globalization as concepts in defining international schools.

First, read Resource 10, which is an extract from Robert Leach (1969).

Another view is held by Ian Hill (1994) which can be seen in Resource 11. Finally, read how Leach finished his point, in Resource 12.

In your Student book (11), note your initial thought on these extracts.

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MODULE 2O: What have you learned? Evaluation of your learning from Module 2

Now that you've completed the Tasks and Activities in MODULE 2, have another look at the intended learning outcomes:
By the end of this module, you should:

  • have critically evaluated your own school's claims about international mindedness
  • understand the impact the values in your school have on what happens in your classroom
  • understand how the classroom practices of your school can influence the international mindedness of the students


In your Student book (12), note the extent to which you've achieved these outcomes. Note any action you'll need to take in the future than e-mail your comments to your instructor.

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MODULE2P: Congratulations

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MODULE 3: The skills of international mindedness

MODULE3A- Introduction to Module 3

In this module we'll explore how we can recognize in students the knowledge, attitudes and attributes of international mindedness.
We'll look again at specific curricula, but try to see them from a student perspective – how the learning actually happens. We'll look at whether the development of international mindedness becomes more sophisticated as students get older. You'll deliver and critique a lesson or series of lessons with the objective of developing international mindedness. You'll also consider the factors beyond the influence of the school that have an impact on the students' development of international mindedness.

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MODULE3B- Intended learning outcomes for Module 3

By the end of this module, you should:

  • know some of the skills which help students develop international mindedness
  • know the role of Peace Studies in bringing about international understanding
  • know the difficulties of assessing international mindedness

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MODULE3C- International mindedness in the formal curriculum

As a quick introduction, we'll look at just two examples of international primary school curricula.

A well-respected international program for primary schools is produced by the International Primary Curriculum (IPC). Click here to learn more about IPC.

Another well-established program, The Primary Years Program (PYP) is part of IB. On their website, explore the the PYP program. Click here to learn more about PYP.

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MODULE3D- Activity 9: Peace Studies (section 1)

The responsibility for international mindedness development doesn't stop with the curriculum of course. One syllabus that clearly illustrates how student learning can be directly affected is the Peace and Conflict Studies course offered at Atlantic College, Wales.

This is a school-based course within the IB Diploma. It's a good example of how the mission of the school impacts on what is actually being taught. Also, it highlights one of the values behind many of the international curricula available: a commitment to peace.

We'll look at this program now, and then revisit it in Module 4.

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MODULE3E - Activity 9: Peace Studies (section 2)

Read Resource 13, which is an extract from the introduction to the Peace and Conflict Studies course offered by Atlantic College in Wales.

The extract mentions some general, basic skills that might help students to develop international mindedness. As you read the extract, try to spot these skills. Record them for reference in your Student book (13). You'll come back to this in a later Activity.

Resource 14 contains some of the skills we noticed. Add to or amend your list if necessary.

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MODULE3F - Activity 10: Reflection on Peace Studies

With the Peace and Conflict Studies program in mind, go to your Student book (14) and note your opinion on the extent to which these types of programs and the skills that underpin them can help develop international mindedness.

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MODULE 3G-Values and the Affective Domain

In 1956, Benjamin Bloom and his colleagues did some research into how students learn. Bloom identified three different 'domains' when students learn:

  • Cognitive domain
  • Affective domain
  • Psycho-motor domain

Have a look at Resource 15 for a brief summary of Bloom's taxonomy (classifications).

The Affective domain, with its emphasis on attitudes, values, interests and appreciations, is arguably the most relevant in the development of international mindedness in students

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MODULE 3H- Task 6: Planning and evaluating a lesson

To use Bloom's language, some teachers seem to focus on the cognitive domain, at the expense of the Affective domain. This Task will help you examine what is often hidden.

(For this Task, if you're not currently teaching, arrange to observe a colleague who is.)

Write up a lesson plan (or a plan for a series of lessons) which has a focus on international mindedness. Depending on your experience so far, this could either reinforce the concept, or introduce it for the first time. As you think about how to address international mindedness, think about how you can develop your students' attitudes, rather than how you can impart knowledge.

Then deliver the lesson. If possible, ask a colleague to observe part or all of the lesson.

After the lesson, try to evaluate the extent to which you achieved the goal of developing international mindedness.

Record your observations in your Student book (15). Separate them into:

  • whole-class observations
  • observations of particular groups
  • observations about individual students
  • your own behavior and feelings during the lesson and your responses to students

Resource 16 provides some ideas of the kind of thing you could record.

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MODULE 3I- Thinking at a higher level

Read Resource 17, which is an extract from a paper by Kevin Bartlett.

This reinforces the view that by teaching higher-order thinking skills, we can positively influence the behavior and attitudes of students.

(Although Bartlett makes the challenge to primary/elementary teachers, it can be extended, of course, to all teachers.)

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MODULE 3J- Activity 11: Some skills to think about

We can see that there's a mix of both cognitive and affective skills that come together to generate the attributes that we wish to see as part of international mindedness.
In the International School of Penang, teachers were asked the following question:

'What skills and attributes would you hope to see in a world citizen?'

Resource 18 shows their answers.

Many items in the list would fall into the Affective domain. Which of the skills and attributes listed would you consider essential to the development of international mindedness? Write up your thoughts in your Student book (16).

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MODULE 3K- Activity 12: 'Service' and international mindedness

Some leading educationalists have stressed the need to develop the notion of service in students to help facilitate the development of international mindedness.

Kurt Hahn was one of these people. He was a powerful influence on a new form of education that has grown from the period between the two world wars of the 20th century and into the 21st century.

Read Resource 19, which is taken from "Schools Across Frontiers" by Alex Peterson. In this extract, Peterson shares with us the essence of what Hahn believed.

It's evident from his influential writings that he saw adventure, service and the common endeavor of the young in working together to improve the human lot as one way of developing the attributes that we envisage as part of international mindedness.

(Note: if you'd like to read more about Hahn, go to www.kurthahn.org)

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MODULE 3L- Assessment – some background

Is it possible and/or desirable to formally assess international mindedness in a student? You may argue it's more important to create an environment conducive to developing international mindedness, rather than trying to test its presence in students.
To assess students, we need some sort of performance criteria. For example:

  • breadth of perspective
  • empathy
  • the ability to see and appreciate opposing views on subjects

The next Activity will help you reflect on how you can assess the development of international mindedness in your students.

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MODULE 3M- Activity 13: Assessment

Read Resource 20, which offers some ideas about assessing international mindedness.

Then think about the criteria you might use to measure an individual student's development in international mindedness. Think about whether you want a graduated performance. If so, try and draw criteria that might guide differentiation of performance. (Some of the ideas in Resource 18 might help you here.)

Note your criteria in your Student book (17).

Then write a narrative description report of a student you know, assessing their development of international mindedness. Remember to review your own values as you write.

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MODULE 3N- International mindedness in future life

For schools that claim to develop international mindedness, the challenge is how to show the outside world that their claim is true. Some schools choose to monitor the future careers and activities of the alumni, in the form of universities attended, degree success and prominent public status.

But are these idle gestures and do they miss the point? Would a school really record every comment or action from a former student that might suggest international mindedness?

A judgment is always involved. How do we assess the relative international mindedness of the Red Cross worker, the UN office worker, the UN soldier, the peace keeper, the soldier fighting the "just war", or even the international businessman? Motive and intention play a part.

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MODULE 3O- What have you learned? Evaluation of your learning from Module 3

Now that you've completed the Tasks and Activities in this module, look again at the intended learning outcomes.

By the end of this module, you should:

  • know some of the skills which help students develop international mindedness
  • know the role of Peace Studies in bringing about international understanding
  • know the difficulties of assessing international mindedness

In your Student book (18), note the extent to which you have achieved the learning outcomes. Note any future action you need to take than e-mail your comments to your instructor.

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MODULE 3P- Congratulations


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MODULE 4: – International-mindedness : What else is involved?

- MODULE 4A- Intended learning outcomes for Module 4

By the end of this module, you should:

  • know that a variety of agents play a part in generating international mindedness
  • understand the possible unconscious subversive role of international schools.

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- MODULE 4B- Activity 14: The influence of language (1)

We touched on how language can influence your choice of teaching materials in Module 2. How important are languages to the development of international mindedness generally? Read Resource 21, which contains two extracts on this subject. Then go to your Student book (19) and answer the questions there.

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- MODULE 4C: Activity 14: The influence of language (2)

There's another side to the language argument of course. Read Resource 22 for a different perspective. Then go to your Student book (20) and respond to the issues raised there.

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MODULE 4D- Activity 15: Cultural identity – the role of parents

The complexity of international mindedness is further increased by the perfectly reasonable involvement of parents in their children's education.
For example, is international-mindedness compatible with the right to a cultural identity? (Some Islamic parents may object to music in the curriculum.)

Do parents have the right to control the experiences their children encounter? (Some parents may object to boys doing cookery.)

To what extent should all students be expected to do all things? (Some fundamentalist Christian parents may object to theories of evolution being taught in science.)

Go to your Student book (21) and note your thoughts on the three questions above.

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-MODULE4E: Task 7: Discussion with a colleague

Meet with a senior administrator (or equivalent) and discuss with them the questions you reflected on in the last Activity. Summarize this discussion in your Student book (22).

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MODULE 4F- Activity 16: Western values

If international education is linked to some "universal" values that add up to something called "international mindedness", does this have implications for western values that prevail in some schools? Read the extract from John Bastable in Resource 23 for more on this idea.

Then consider the statements below:

"In some cultures, people believe that success should be achieved at any cost – therefore cheating in an exam is acceptable." "To be critical and analytical is seen by many as a high-level intellectual skill, whereas in some cultures such an approach is discouraged, even not allowed." "In western traditions, an artist’s work should be original, yet in some cultures careful copying is a high achievement." In your Student book (23) note the extent to which you and colleagues push (or are expected to push) western assumptions of what is valued.

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MODULE 4G- Franchised values

Read Resource 24, in which James Cambridge comments on the issue of globalization. Cambridge refers to international schools as 'franchised distributors of globally branded products'.

In your Student book (24), note the extent to which international mindedness could be interpreted as 'western mindedness'.

James Cambridge's article may seem to be cynically reducing international education to the market place and ignoring the ideological side of education. We have to consider that education includes both the visionary and the utilitarian. Schools have to attract pupils, keep to standards, get results. By their very nature, they have an opportunity to be more than this.

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MODULE 4H- Activity 17: Absolutes or Relatives?

As a final Activity, read Resource 25.
Hopefully this gave you some food for thought about some of the themes we've covered so far in the course.

SO:

In the light of everything you've read and reflected on, re-read your initial definition of international mindedness, and in your Student book (25) either draw up an altered one giving reasons for the changes, or reaffirm your original definition with reasons.

It may be that your journey here is over – we hope that your quest will continue. If you continue to think about international mindedness and all the issues surrounding it, remember that others journey with you – all with the common goal of improving the human condition.

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MODULE 4I- What have you learned? Evaluation of your learning from Module 4

Now that you've completed the Tasks and Activities in MODULE 4, look again at the intended learning outcomes for the module.
By the end of this module, you should:

  • know that a variety of agents play a part in generating international mindedness
  • understand the possible unconscious subversive role of international schools

In your Student book (26), note the extent to which you feel you have achieved the intended learning outcomes for this module than e-mail your comments to your instructor.

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MODULE 4J- Congratulations

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RESOURCES

Resource 1: What are international schools?

International Schools Journal Vol X1X No. 2, 2000, by Mary Hayden and Jeff Thompson.
"A widely shared definition of the term "international school" has not yet been established. Views about the nature of such an institution vary widely and include, for example,

the essentially utilitarian, such as Jonietz's (1991) suggestion that they are schools which cater for: international families who seek or accept international employment and establish life outside their national boundaries;

the essentially pragmatic, such as Renaud's (1991) description of an international school as: an institution offering several national streams in a kind of educational department store …(with) different communities being juxtaposed more than integrated…(and satisfying the) need to prepare students for national school-leaving examinations each with very different requirements;

and the more ideologically-focussed such as Gellar's (1993) assertion that what makes an international school different from any other school is: not so much curriculum, but what takes place in the minds of children as they work and play together with children of other cultures and backgrounds. It is the child experiencing togetherness with different and unique individuals; not just toleration, but the enjoyment of differences; differences of color, dress, belief and perspective."

This extract is from Ian Hill in the International Schools Journal Vol XIX No. 2, 2000. He lists what he sees as the common features of an international education:

'Course content which provides an international perspective
Recognition that the world is increasingly interdependent
Provision of activities which will bring students into contact with other cultures
Creation of a context for world peace by provision of opportunities for many cultures to learn together in mutual understanding and respect.'

This extract is from Robert Belle-Isle (a former Director of the United Nations International School, New York) writing in the International Schools Journal in 1986)

"A school cannot claim the status of an international institution simply because 70 or 80 percent of its clientele represent a variety of nationalities, races and cultures…. The new mission of international education is to respond to the intellectual and emotional needs of the children of the world, bearing in mind the intellectual and cultural mobility not only of the individual but, most of all, of thought."

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Resource 2: The 1951 Conference of Internationally-Minded Schools

The extract below is from an article by Ian Hill called Internationally Minded Schools published in the International Schools Journal, Vol XX No. 1, 2000

"With the exception of three or four international schools, its [the Conference of Internationally-Minded Schools'] membership comprised a majority of national state and private schools with the aim of furthering world peace and international understanding through education. It organized workshops for training teachers in the promotion of international understanding, fostered student exchanges amongst member schools across the world, and worked towards mutual recognition of the equivalence of university entrance qualifications in all countries. The aims and membership of the CIMS provide an important clue for unraveling the confusion about who provides international education. It is unfortunate that its existence has been rarely acknowledged by scholars in the field..."

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Resource 3: International education and world issues

The following extract is from an article called International Education: flying flags or raising standards? by Mary Hayden and Jeff Thompson, published in the International Schools Journal (Vol X1X, No. 2, 2000).
"We would strongly support Walker's (1995) claim that international education is not a concept exclusive to the international community, and is not simply about 'teaching groups of students of different nationalities… not studying the history, geography and customs of other countries… not arranging foreign exchanges… not having a strong modern languages department – though each of these might help, but rather, as suggested by UNESCO (1995), that it "should provide young people with opportunities to gain knowledge about, and develop attitudes and values towards major world issues… and must include activities and processes that encourage awareness of and commitment to the solutions of global problems. This should be done in such ways that people learn solutions are possible, through co-operation at all levels – at the levels of individuals, organizations and nations." (p.52)

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Resource 4: Some examples
Some schools have structures, practices and cultures that go some way to bringing about a sense of international mindedness. These include:

  • a guidance department that supports all students, allowing them to be individuals and true to their culture
  • international evenings where the traditions of particular cultures within the school are celebrated
  • images of different cultures displayed prominently around the building
  • a curriculum committee whose sole task is to monitor all school programs with a view to keeping a balance of cultural material and evaluating the success of cross-cultural activities

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Resource 5: Controlling materials – an example

This short article by Stephen Phillips appeared in the Times Educational Supplement in the UK (1 January 2004):
American schools boss sent home in row over Koran

The American firm spearheading reconstruction of Iraq's schools has sent home its top representative in Baghdad after a complaint by the Iraqi education minister Aia'din Alwar that the school had asked for verses of the Koran to be removed from teaching materials paid for by the United States government.

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Resource 6: Creating a monoculture?

Imagine an international school which teaches the topic of Henry VIII of England and his wives in its History program. How would the school have decided to teach this topic?
Was it decided that this topic would be the best illustration of a more general concept under development?
Did the teacher teach this topic in their last school at this level?
Was it covered in the textbook, reflecting a decision by:

  • the writer, or
  • the publisher, or
  • the government (e.g., if it was published in England to support their national curriculum)

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Resource 7: The Circle

You might think it would be difficult to make a math lesson internationally minded. But just by way of an example, imagine you take a lesson on the subject of circles. Here's an extract from Black Elk Speaks by John G. Neffiardt (1932), which would suggest an internationally-minded approach.
The Circle

I am now between Wounded Knee Creek and Grass Creek. Others came too, and we made these little grey houses of logs that you see and they are square. It is a bad way to live, for there can be no power in a square. You have noticed that everything an Indian does is in a circle, and that is because the Power of the world always works in circles, and everything tries to be round. In the old days when we were a strong and happy people, all our power came to us, the hoop was unbroken, the people flourished. The flowering tree was the living centre of the hoop, and the circle of the four quarters nourished it. The east gave peace and light, the south gave warmth, the west came to us to give rain, and the north with its cold and mighty wind gave strength and endurance. This knowledge came to us from the outer world with our religion.

Everything the Power of the World does is done in a circle. The sky is round, and I have heard that the earth is round like a ball, and so are the stars. The wind, in its greatest power, whirls. Birds make their nests in circles, for theirs is the same religion as ours. The sun comes forth and goes down in a circle. The moon does the same and both are round. Even the seasons form a great circle in their changing, and always come back again to where they were. The life of a man is a circle from childhood to childhood, and so it is in everything where power moves. Our tepees were round like the nest of birds and these were always set in a circle, the nation's hoop, a nest of many nests, where the Great Spirit meant us to hatch our children. But the Waischus (whitemen) have put us out from the sacred hoop of the nation, and so long as we are in these square boxes, our power is gone and we are dying, for the power is not in us any more. You can look at our boys and see how it is with us. When we were living by the power of the circle in the way we should, boys were men at twelve or thirteen years of age. But now it takes them very much longer to mature. Well, it is as it is. We are prisoners of war while we are waiting here. But there is another world...

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Resource 8: Transmitting values – an example from nursing

During the Vietnam war, an increasing number of Filipino nurses began working in US military hospitals. They brought with them a different set of cultural values about how patients in the wards should be treated. It became evident in orientation training that, compared to many American nurses, many of these Filipino nurses spent more time with patients, were warmer with them, and generally became more involved with them.

The orientation program focused on changing the behavior and nature of the Filipino nurses. It was thought to have achieved some success until a long-term study was carried out. The study showed that the behavior of the Filipino nurses was far more subtle than first thought – so much so that even though the program tried to change the Filipinos' behavior, the reverse effect happened. The study showed that even though the Filipino nurses had gone though the orientation program they didn't change. In fact, it was concluded that their value system and corresponding behavior was transmitted to the American trained nurses.

It seemed that any amount of training had little effect upon the inherent behavior and value transmission of the nurses.

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Resource 9: Walker on values

The quote below is taken from To Educate the Nations by George Walker (2002)


"…what might happen if my successor as director General at Ecolint turns out to be Japanese. I do not mean someone born in Tokyo and educated in Princeton and the London School of Economics. I mean someone whose entire education and professional experience has been based in Japan, just as mine has been in Britain until eight years ago. I think this person might have some problems at Ecolint because, in one important dimension, international education is not "international" at all: it is western, humanist education.

A humanist education is founded upon a belief in the essential goodness of human kind: the learner is invited to challenge the teacher in the pursuit of truth; God is confined to a small part of the curriculum and may even be excluded completely.

The message is clear; nothing is beyond the reach of human beings if they are willing to stand on their own feet. The choice is theirs. For me, all this is very familiar and comfortable but there are many societies that have not "learned to say no to God"; there are many societies where the wisdom of the teacher is deemed more precious than the aspirations of the learner; there are many societies where young people are not afforded a freedom of choice. Are all these millions of people ill-advised, poorly educated and quite simply wrong?"

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Resource 10: What makes an internationally minded school – Leach

The extract below is from International Schools and their Role in the Field of International Education by Robert Leach (1969).

"It would appear to be common practice in a number of places to regard an international school as one serving or being composed of students from several nationalities. This definition leads into hopeless confusion, however, when, upon reflection, one realizes that practically every school in such a cosmopolitan centre as London or New York includes a number of nationalities in its student body. Such schools are mostly state-financed national institutions. There are, in fact, a number of privately financed and some state-operated schools of an elite order in most developed countries, which pride themselves on being "internationally minded" and are, in truth, far more international in their orientation than the run-of-the-mill London or New York school. In most cases, however, the internationally minded school … is usually composed of students of one nationality, or mostly of one."

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Resource 11: What makes an internationally minded school – Hill

The extract below refers to a PHD Thesis by Ian Hill, called The International Baccalaureate: Policy Process in Education.
"Hill (1994) shared the view that an international school is distinctive due to a particular school ethos. Hill (1994) proposed that such an ethos "may be defined as preparing students for global citizenship by building on the principles of tolerance, international cooperation, justice and peace." He argued that the most obvious characteristics shared by international schools are the diversity of input from teachers and students, and the social adaptability of the students. Hill continued to focus his definition by comparing an international school to a national school. He described an international school as being one "whose students and staff are representative of a number of cultural and ethnic origins, and where the International Baccalaureate or a number of different national courses and examinations are offered and where the ethos is one of internationalism as opposed to nationalism."

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Resource 12: More from Leach

Here's how Leach continued his point:

"The truly multilateral international school must be devoted to the principle that the highest common denominator between and among the various contributing national elements is essential. Rather naturally, the whole world becomes the local parish for the multilateral international school. Each major tradition can be analyzed for its strengths and usefulness. Once this course has been decided upon and the essential unity of mankind therefore underscored, the possibility of achieving a result which will enrich each national heritage is made possible. Such a step seems, in retrospect, the only sensible course to have taken. This is the experience of a number of teachers in international schools which approach or have achieved multilateral internationalism."

Resource 13: CLICK HERE TO DOWNLOAD

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Resource 14: Key Skills

Some of the key skills that are mentioned in the Peace and Conflict course are:

  • informed discussion and debate
  • exploring ideas
  • examining theories
  • persuasive communication


Did you find any others? Make a comprehensive list in your Student book.

Resource 15: CLICK HERE TO DOWNLOAD

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Resource 16: Some ideas on the lesson

Here are some ideas to get you thinking about your evaluation of the lesson:
Did you sow initial seeds for growth of a particular attitude?
Did you build on the work of other teachers? Perhaps students gave you feedback, e.g., "with Mrs. Charles, we did..."
Did the discussion provoke fixed opinions in your students, meaning you had to play devil's advocate to develop some empathic responses?
Did you find that the class became divided and polarized positions were taken?
Did some students suggest that this type of activity shouldn't be done in class?
Did you freely share your personal perspectives?
Did you feel some students' responses showed objectivity, rationality, bigotry, or just apathy?

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Resource 17: Thinking at a higher level

The extract below is taken from Internationalism: getting beneath the surface part 1: Internationalism? It's about thinking! by Kevin Bartlett.
"A more profound impact will only be achieved if we examine the way students learn and teachers teach - if we look, in fact, at how people in schools think. If schools continue to settle for pedestrian thinking, at all levels, then the result will be adults who, when faced with the different views and mores of other cultures are likely to fall back on their own traditional responses and to accept the "black and white" summaries of complex international issues which often pass for political analysis" in the media.

If, on the other hand, we set out to provide situations in which students think clearly, critically and, crucially, think for themselves, then perhaps we are taking a few small steps towards developing students who might respond to challenging international issues with a little more than knee-jerk, nationalistic responses.

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Resource 18: Skills and attributes of a world citizen

The list below contains the responses given by teachers in the International School of Penang during an in-service training activity. The teachers were asked:
"What skills and attributes would you hope to see in a world citizen?"

  • respect for all cultures
  • mission to serve others
  • looking for world peace
  • sharing and preserving world peace
  • open mindedness
  • physical, emotional, mental maturity
  • good communicator
  • articulate
  • globally aware
  • confident
  • multi-lingual
  • life-long learner
  • high self-esteem
  • independent
  • motivated
  • happy
  • empathy
  • tolerant
  • active thinker
  • good listener
  • sensitive to others
  • adaptable
  • broad education
  • flexible
  • caring
  • cooperative
  • well balanced
  • organized
  • unprejudiced
  • willing to take risks
  • able to make choices
  • compassionate
  • honest

Resource 19 : CLICK HERE TO DOWNLOAD

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Resource 20: Assessment ideas

  • Service. Sometimes, e.g., in the IB Diploma, the student is required to write reflectively on the service experience.
  • Grading can be a problem. Some schools use a linear progression of 1 through 6, or imprecise terms like "Good", "Satisfactory" and "Poor", but with no clear definition of the degree of success needed to move between these categories.
  • Can a grid method be used for a concept like international mindedness or is this too crude?
  • Sometimes a prize is given at the end of the year for contributions to the school's definition of service and citizenship. But still there's the problem of how students are identified for prizes. Exactly what is it that distinguishes them from the other students?
  • If you ask students to reflect on their own international mindedness, it's open to platitude or insincerity – students might only do the task for the sake of it. The sincerity is often seen later, in the impact on a student's life after school.

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Resource 21: Languages

The International Baccalaureate is an example of a program that places an emphasis on language acquisition. The IBO Schools Guide to the Middle Years Program, says that language:
"...does more than promote cognitive growth; it is crucial for exploring and sustaining cultural identity, personal development and intercultural understanding. Students are required to develop at least two languages within the Middle Years Program, normally their best language and another language. Many schools, depending on their circumstances and needs, will encourage students to study more than two languages.

This fundamental concept also touches the development of the students' understanding and appreciation of different modes of thinking and expression, including the arts and the use of information and communication technology. Like the fundamental concept of intercultural awareness, it (communication) affects the delivery of the program itself, as teachers need to engage in common planning across subjects and as students learn to work in teams."

(The IB Diploma program requires satisfactory performance in two languages. In some European countries, universities demand a certain level of performance in three languages.)

In his article, The Importance of Studying a Modern European Language (International Schools Journal, No 26 1993), Sherin Darwish argues a case for learning European languages:

"In this world that we live in fraught with war and failing human relationships at all levels, it is one's heartfelt hope that better communication will bring people closer to each other through mutual understanding, through respect of other cultures and mores, leading to tolerance and finally acceptance of differences and rights… When one studies the languages of others, one studies their personality."

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Resource 22: Languages - another view

Chamnongsri Rutnin is a Thai writer and poet. This is a small extract from a presentation she made at the ECIS Conference in Hamburg in 2003. She has six grandchildren in international schools.
"I see a very interesting emergence of a culture that belongs to a new generation of the affluent minority of Thai youth, who, while growing up in their native country, are immersed in the learning environment of western curriculum-based international education where the subjects are taught in English and by foreign teachers… My Thai grandchildren and their Thai peers in international schools in Thailand, on the other hand started their education in western-based English language international schools in Bangkok from kindergarten and will most probably continue until graduation with an International Baccalaureate. These Thai students have only five sessions a week of Thai classes taught by Thai teachers – the Ministry of Education has made it compulsory for students who are Thai nationals. But to all intents and purposes, Thai language classes are a "second language" because English is the academic language used in lessons, discussions, research, essays, etc. This is unconsciously absorbed by the children and the Thai language becomes to them the mother tongue that is not really all that necessary for intellectual development… Do I worry over this fact? I must admit that I do."

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Resource 23: Western values

The extract below is taken from an article by John Bastable, Director of Mercedes Benz International School, India, in International School, Vol 4, No 3, a publication from ECIS and CIS.
"International schools exist to promote what is essentially a western concept of education for a clientele of western or 'westernized' parents looking for access to predominantly western educational institutions. However an increasing number of international schools also promote multiculturalism and internationalism… speak of globalization and the need to present students with an awareness of different cultural backgrounds and a celebration of their own cultural identity. An obvious measure of the authenticity of this claim would be to employ teachers from many different cultures, but this is fraught with problems. The culture of an international school is a compromise between the pedagogies of the teachers within it. Teachers from other cultures are often perceived to fail because they are assessed against criteria which their culture values differently." (p11)

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Resource 24: Franchises

The following extract is from Identifying the Globalist and Internationalist Missions of International Schools by James Cambridge (International Schools Journal, Vol X11 No 2, 2002)
"While many international schools claim to be beacons of internationalist values, it is proposed that their pursuit at the same time of a globalist agenda cannot be disavowed. They are supported by curriculum and assessment organizations that might be viewed as the manufacturers of globally branded goods and services that are distributed by a network of what might be called "franchised outlets", the international schools. Both partners benefit from this relationship. The curriculum and assessment organizations do not have as good an understanding and knowledge of local market conditions as the internationals schools, while the schools need the high profile, "brand proposition" of the educational service to attract customers. This relationship is regulated by quality assurance mechanisms such as accreditation. It may be argued that international education is a market with many features in common with global brand franchising." (p.540)

Resource 25: CLICK HERE TO DOWNLOAD

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

Author: Bartlett, K
Title: InternationalisM: getting beneath the surface part 1: Internationalism? It's about thinking!
Publisher: in International Schools Journal, 26, 1993, pp.35-38

Author: de Mejia, AM
Title: Power, Prestige and BilingualisM: International Perspectives on Elite Bilingual Education (2002)
Publisher: Multilingual Matters Ltd
ISBN: 1853595919

Author: Hayden M C and Thompson J J (eds)
Title: International EducatioN: Principles and Practice (1998)
Publisher: Kogan Page, London.
ISBN: 0749426942

Author: Leach, R
Title: International Schools and their Role in the Field of International Education (1969)
Publisher: Pergamon Press
ISBN: 0080130372

Author: Lynch, J
Title: Multicultural Education in a Global Society (1989)
Publisher: The Falmer Press
ISBN: 1850005575

Author: Neihardt, JG
Title: Black Elk Speaks
Publisher: University of Nebraska Press
ISBN: 0803261705

Author: Peterson, ADC
Title: Schools Across Frontiers: The Story of the International Baccalaureate and the United World Colleges (1991)
Publisher: Open Court Publishing Company
ISBN: 0812691458

Author: Walker, G
Title: To Educate the Nations (2002)
Publisher: John Catt Educational
ISBN: 0901577782

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REFERENCES

Name: The University of Bath - A personal view by Erika Schwindt Description: A teacher in an international school gives her views on international mindedness. URL: http://www.bath.ac.uk/ceic/intercom/18p23.pdf

Name: Kurt Hahn Description:One of a number of sites that look in more detail at the ideas of Hahn. URL: http://www.kurthahn.org

Name: International Primary Curriculum Description: A well-respected curriculum framework offered to primary schools with a strong international mindedness perspective. URL: http://www.greatlearning.com/ipc/

Name: Search Associates Description: This sites shares international openings for educators. URL: http://www.searchassociates.com/

Name: International Baccalaureate Description: This is a long established foundation for schools around the globe. URL: http://www.ibo.org/

Name: Institute of International Education Description: IIE provides a wide range of services to and manages or administers programs for many corporations, foundations, government partners, and international agencies. URL: http://www.iie.org

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